Posts tagged Technology
As smart mobile devices become ubiquitous, many applications requiring a high degree of security are being ported to the devices. Banking, mobile payments, stock trading, and digital rights management of downloaded content are all examples of applications requiring secure connections and the use of cryptographic keys. As the examples in this section show, however, many mobile devices currently in use do not contain side-channel protections. Hence, these devices are often extremely vulnerable to side-channel attacks, often from data collection occurring several yards away.
Cryptography is a fundamental building block for securing systems and communications and is widely deployed in embedded systems used for commercial and defense applications. Basic cryptographic operations such as encryption/decryption, message-authentication and digital signatures rely on secret keys that must be kept securely within a device and protected from disclosure. Modern cryptographic algorithms, when used with appropriate-sized keys, are designed to resist all known attacks where the attacker can observe (or manipulate) the inputs or outputs of the algorithm, but does have any other information about the secret key or about the execution of the algorithm.
In Part 1: Principles of Current Flow, we began with the basics. We learned that high-frequency signals flow not in the path of least resistance, but in the path of least impedance. We also discussed some fundamental principles of current flow in PCBs with ground planes.
In Part 2: Design to Minimize Signal-Path Crosstalk, we applied those principles to real-world circuits and to the PCB layout of these circuits. We learned how to place components and route signal traces to minimize problems with crosstalk.
In this final Part 3 we consider the power source currents and how to apply what we have learned to circuits with multiple mixed-signal ICs. We finish with an example where a ground plane cut is useful.
SAN JOSE, Calif. – Startup Peraso Technologies Inc. (Toronto) is sampling a 60 GHz transceiver suitable for the 802.11ad and WiGig standards. The PRS1021 can deliver up to 3.52 Gbits/second over unlicensed 57 to 66 GHz bands.
When we began this series, we observed that board-level designers often have concerns about the proper way to handle grounding for integrated circuits that have separate analog and digital grounds.
Part 1 focused on the basics: where the current flows. We learned that high-frequency signals flow not in the path of least resistance, but in the path of least impedance. We also discussed some fundamental principles of current flow in PCBs with ground planes.
In Part 2 we are now ready to apply these principles to the PCB layout of real-world circuits. We will learn how to place components and route signal traces to minimize problems with crosstalk.
Board-level designers often have concerns about the proper way to handle grounding for integrated circuits (ICs) which have separate analog and digital grounds. Should the two be completely separate and never touch? Should they connect at a single point with cuts in the ground plane to enforce this single point or “Mecca” ground? How can a Mecca ground be implemented when there are several ICs that call for analog and digital grounds?