When we began this series, we observed that board-level designers often have concerns about the proper way to handle grounding for integrated circuits that have separate analog and digital grounds.

Part 1 focused on the basics: where the current flows. We learned that high-frequency signals flow not in the path of least resistance, but in the path of least impedance. We also discussed some fundamental principles of current flow in PCBs with ground planes.

In Part 2 we are now ready to apply these principles to the PCB layout of real-world circuits. We will learn how to place components and route signal traces to minimize problems with crosstalk.

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