1. Introduction 
Cryptography is a fundamental building block for securing systems and communications and is widely deployed in embedded systems used for commercial and defense applications. Basic cryptographic operations such as encryption/decryption, message-authentication and digital signatures rely on secret keys that must be kept securely within a device and protected from disclosure. Modern cryptographic algorithms, when used with appropriate-sized keys, are designed to resist all known attacks where the attacker can observe (or manipulate) the inputs or outputs of the algorithm, but does have any other information about the secret key or about the execution of the algorithm.

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